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Tetrahydrofuran Properties and Stability:

Tetrahydrofuran is a colorless and transparent liquid with an ether-like odor. THF can be miscible with water. Azeotropic mixtures with water can dissolve alkaloids such as cellulose acetate and caffeine, and the dissolution performance is better than that of tetrahydrofuran alone. General organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, etc. can be well dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. Oxidation in air easily produces explosive peroxides. THF has no corrosive effect on metals and has an erosive effect on many plastics and rubbers.

Due to its low boiling and flash points, THF is prone to fire at room temperature. When stored, oxygen in the air can produce explosive peroxides with tetrahydrofuran. Peroxides are more likely to form in the presence of light and the absence of water. Therefore, reducing substances such as 0.05%~1% hydroquinone, resorcinol, p-cresol or ferrous salts are often added as antioxidants to inhibit the generation of peroxides. This product is low toxic, and the operator should wear protective equipment.


THF Chemical Properties:

Generates explosive peroxides in air due to autoxidation. On oxidation with nitric acid, THF generates succinic acid. Under the catalytic effect of alumina, THF reacts with ammonia at 300~400℃ to get pyrrolidine; and reacts with hydrogen sulfide at 400℃ to get tetrahydrothiophene. In the presence of zinc chloride, in the presence of acid or chlorine, THF readily opens the ring to form 1,4-butanediol, 1,4-diazide.

Chlorination at room temperature under the influence of light produces 2,3-dichlorotetrahydrofuran. Its chlorine atom in the second position is very active and can be directly substituted by alkoxy, acetate or alkyl groups of Grignard reagents. Using acid phosphate as a catalyst, tetrahydrofuran is dehydrated at 270°C to produce butadiene. On heating, the tetrahydrofuran interacts with hydrogen chloride gas to rearrange to 4-chlorobutanol. In the presence of aluminum trichloride, tetrahydrofuran interacts with lithium aluminum hydride to quantitatively produce butyl alcohol.

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